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N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources

NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Water Quality - In Situ Groundwater Remediation

Water Quality

In Situ Groundwater Remediation

 Injection wells are typically used for groundwater remediation in the following ways: 

Injection of remediation compounds

Substances are injected to chemically or biologically degrade contaminants, or to assist in their physical removal by recovery wells.  Many smaller projects are permitted by rule and only require submittal of a notification form.  Other larger projects require submittal of a permit application and issuance of an individual permit before injection or well construction can begin.  Click here for a list of approved injectants.  If you do not see the substance you are considering for injection on this list, you must fill out the appropriate risk assessment evaluation form when submitting an injection well permit application or notification form.  Any new substance to be injected must be reviewed by the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Section (OEES) of the Division of Public Health, Department of Health and Human Services.  

Air sparging

Ambient air is injected under pressure into a well in order to volatilize contaminants and to stimulate aerobic bioremediation. No injection well permit is required; however, notification is required 2 weeks prior to injection.  Additionally, well construction and abandonment reporting forms are to be submitted within 30 days.

Tracer injection

An aqueous solution containing a dye or chemical tracer is injected into a well and its presence is monitored at monitoring or recovery wells in order to determine groundwater flow paths. Many smaller projects are permitted by rule and only require submittal of a notification form.  Other larger projects require submittal of a permit application and issuance of an individual permit before injection or well construction can begin.  Click here for a list of approved injectants.  If you do not see the substance you are considering for injection on this list, you must fill out the appropriate risk assessment evaluation form when submitting an injection well permit application or notification form.  Any new substance to be injected must be reviewed by the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Section (OEES) of the Division of Public Health, Department of Health and Human Services.

Aquifer hydraulic testing

These wells are used to estimate aquifer parameters by hydraulic slug testing or in situ constant head permeability testing. No injection well permit is required for construction or operation of an aquifer test well, but the injected fluid must be uncontaminated and the operation of the well must not cause contaminated groundwater to migrate into previously uncontaminated areas or cause an exceedance of groundwater quality standards.

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