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N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources

NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Water Quality - DWR Soil & Groundwater Remediation

Water Quality

In Situ Groundwater Remediation

 Injection wells are typically used for groundwater remediation in the following ways: 

Injection of remediation compounds

Substances are injected to chemically or biologically degrade contaminants, or to assist in their physical removal by recovery wells.  Many smaller projects are permitted by rule and only require submittal of a notification form.  Other larger projects require submittal of a permit application and issuance of an individual permit before injection or well construction can begin.  Click here for a list of approved injectants.  If you do not see the substance you are considering for injection on this list, you must fill out the appropriate risk assessment evaluation form when submitting an injection well permit application or notification form.  Any new substance to be injected must be reviewed by the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Section (OEES) of the Division of Public Health, Department of Health and Human Services.  

Air sparging

Ambient air is injected under pressure into a well in order to volatilize contaminants and to stimulate aerobic bioremediation. No injection well permit is required; however, notification is required 2 weeks prior to injection.  Additionally, well construction and abandonment reporting forms are to be submitted within 30 days.

Tracer injection

An aqueous solution containing a dye or chemical tracer is injected into a well and its presence is monitored at monitoring or recovery wells in order to determine groundwater flow paths. Many smaller projects are permitted by rule and only require submittal of a notification form.  Other larger projects require submittal of a permit application and issuance of an individual permit before injection or well construction can begin.  Click here for a list of approved injectants.  If you do not see the substance you are considering for injection on this list, you must fill out the appropriate risk assessment evaluation form when submitting an injection well permit application or notification form.  Any new substance to be injected must be reviewed by the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Section (OEES) of the Division of Public Health, Department of Health and Human Services.

Aquifer hydraulic testing

These wells are used to estimate aquifer parameters by hydraulic slug testing or in situ constant head permeability testing. No injection well permit is required for construction or operation of an aquifer test well, but the injected fluid must be uncontaminated and the operation of the well must not cause contaminated groundwater to migrate into previously uncontaminated areas or cause an exceedance of groundwater quality standards.

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Groundwater Protection Branch :: Program Areas

Pump & Treat Non-Discharge Groundwater Remediation 

Non-discharge groundwater remediation systems are groundwater treatment systems that extract and treat contaminated groundwater. These include closed-loop groundwater remediation systems and typically use infiltration galleries or injection wells.  This does not include in-situ groundwater remediation wells, as defined by NCAC 15A 2C .0209(e)(3)(C), unless such a system includes the withdrawal, treatment, and reintroduction of the treated groundwater. In-situ groundwater remediation wells are regulated by the Underground Injection Control Program.  Click here to access the application form.
 

Fees

Non-Discharge Groundwater Remediation Permits Fee Schedule
(effective September 1, 2007)

Activity
(see note 1)

Annual FeeMajor Modification
(see note 2)
Minor Modification
(see note 3)
Renewal

Major Permit Application
(> 10,000 gal/day)

$1310$395No FeeNo Fee

Minor Permit Application
(< 10,000 gal/day )

$810$245No FeeNo Fee

Notes:

  1. For new permit requests, a fee equivalent to the corresponding annual fee is required. This fee is non-refundable if the permit request is denied or withdrawn. If the permit is granted, this fee applies as the annual fee for the first year after permit issuance.
  2. This fee is non-refundable if the permit request is denied or withdrawn. A major modification shall be defined as one that increases the volume, increases the pollutant load, results in a significant relocation of the discharge point, or results in a change in the characteristics of the waste generated.
  3. Minor permit modifications include name/ownership changes, corrections, and administrative amendments.
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