Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is the process of injecting water into the ground for storage and later recovering that water for use. One common use of ASR is for management of peak demand and raw water supply in public drinking water systems. In this scenario, excess treated drinking water can be injected in periods when supply exceeds demand and can be recovered when demand exceeds the treatment plant's capacity. If a clean aquifer is used as the injection zone and the aquifer matrix and native groundwater are chemically compatible with the injected water, the recovered water should be roughly the same quality as when it was injected and thus should require only additional disinfection treatment prior to distribution to the public.
An injection permit is required for construction and operation of a well for ASR. In addition to this permit, a water supply well permit is required and the Public Water Supply Section of the Division of Environmental Health must approve of the use of the ASR well in a public water system, although issuance of the injection well permit is independent of these approvals.
Major issues that must be addressed in an ASR permit application include: