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N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources

NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Natural Heritage Program - Field Biology References

Natural Heritage Program

Recommended Field Biology References for North Carolina

The list of field references on this page includes some useful books and websites that may help you identify species and natural communities in North Carolina. This list is not comprehensive and does not include every reference that may be useful, but these are some of the tools that Natural Heritage Program staff biologists regularly use.

Maypop flower by Dale SuiterPlants

Vascular Plants

  • Godfrey, R.K. and J.W. Wooten. 1979-81. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States. 2 vols. University of GA Press, Athens.
  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.
  • Weakley, A.S. 2011. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Working draft of 25 May 2011. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), NC Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Download free or order a copy from http://herbarium.unc.edu.
  • Weakley, A.S., J.C. Ludwig, and J.F. Townsend. 2012. Flora of Virginia. BRIT Press, Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, TX. 1554 pp.

Bryophytes

  • Crum, H. & L.E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America. 2 Vols. Columbia University Press. N.Y.
  • Hicks, Marie L. 1992. Guide to the liverworts of North Carolina. Duke University Press.

Lichens

  • Brodo, Irvin, M. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press.

Delaware Skipper by Ed CoreyAnimals

Mammals

  • Bowers, N., R. Bowers, and K. Kaufman. 2004. Mammals of North America. Kaufman Focus Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York. 352 pp.
  • Kays, R.W., and D.E. Wilson. 2009. Mammals of North America; Second edition. Princeton Field Guides. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Reid, F.A. 2006. A Field Guide to Mammals of North America north of Mexico; Fourth edition. Peterson Field Guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York.
  • Webster, W. D., J. F. Parnell and W. C. Biggs Jr. 1985. Mammals of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Maryland. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 255 pp.

Birds

  • Dunn, J.L., and J. Alderfer. 2011. National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America; Sixth edition. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. 574 pp.
  • Potter, E. F., J. F. Parnell, R. P. Teulings, R. Davis. 2006. Birds of the Carolinas. 2nd ed. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 399 pp.
  • “Birds of North Carolina: their Distribution and Abundance” website: http://www.carolinabirdclub.org/ncbirds/accounts.php

Reptiles and Amphibians

  • Beane, J. C., A. L. Braswell, J. C. Mitchell, W. M. Palmer, and J. R. Harrison III. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia. Second Edition, Revised and Updated. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. vii + 274 pp.
  • Palmer, W.M., and A.L. Braswell. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 412 pp.
  • “Carolina Herp Atlas” website: http://www.carolinaherpatlas.org

Freshwater Fishes

  • Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 2011. Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 663 pages.
  • Rohde, F. C., R.G. Arndt, D.G. Lindquist, and J.F. Parnell. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. University of North Carolina Press. 222 pages.

Mollusks

  • Bogan, A. 2002.Workbook and Key to the Freshwater Bivalves of North Carolina. North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC. Download Free or order a copy from http://naturalsciences.org/research-collections/research-specialties/invertebrates.

Butterflies and Moths

  • Beadle, D., and S. Leckie. 2012. Peterson Field Guide to Moths of Northeastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. 611 pp.
  • Brock, J. P. and K. Kaufman. 2003. Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 392 pp.
  • Cech, R., and G. Tudor. 2005. Butterflies of the East Coast – an Observer’s Guide. Princeton University Press. 345 pp.
  • Wagner, D. L. 2005. Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton Field Guides. Princeton University Press.
  • “Butterflies of North Carolina” website: http://149.168.1.196/nbnc
  • “North American Moth Photographers Group” website: http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/MainMenu.shtml

Dragonflies and Damselflies

  • Dunkle, S. W. 2000. Dragonflies through Binoculars: a field guide to Dragonflies of North America. Oxford University Press, USA. 266 pp.
  • Paulson. D. 2011. Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East. Princeton University Press. 538 pp.
  • “The Dragonflies and Damselflies of North Carolina” website: http://149.168.1.196/odes/a/accounts.php

Tiger Beetles

  • Knisely, C. B. and T. D. Schultz. 1997. The Biology of Tiger Beetles and a Guide to the Species of the South Atlantic States. Virginia Museum of Natural History. 210 pp.

Brackish Marsh Dare County by Misty BuchananNatural Communities

  • Schafale, M.P. 2012. Classification of the Natural Communities of North Carolina (Fourth Approximation). North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Office of Conservation, Planning, and Community Affairs, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC. Download Free or order a copy.
  • Blevins, D. and M. P. Schafale. 2011. Wild North Carolina: Discovering the Wonders of Our State's Natural Communities. The University of North Carolina Press. 176 pp.

Little Eastern Grasshopper nymph by Steve HallEndangered Species


  1. Unless otherwise noted, these are available for purchase through your favorite booksellers.

 

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