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N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources

NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Coastal Management - fall06

Coastal Management

CAMAgram - Fall 2006

CAMA General Permit Application Fees Increased Sept. 1

The cost of Coastal Area Management Act General Permit applications increased Sept. 1. At its June meeting, the Coastal Resources Commission voted to increase the application fees, up to a maximum of $400, in order to offset the increased cost of processing the permits. This is the first increase in CAMA General Permit fees since 2000.

“Over the years, the cost of processing permits has increased significantly,” said Ted Tyndall, assistant director for permits and enforcement with the N.C. Division of Coastal Management. “We need the higher fees to keep pace with that cost. Comparatively, these new fees will still be among the lowest for permits needed for coastal development.”

CAMA General Permits are used for routine projects that usually pose little or no threat to the environment, such as the construction of private piers and docks, riprap and bulkheads, and installation of sandbags.

The new fees for each type of General Permit are listed below:

CRC
Rule #

Permit Type

Old Fee

New Fee

7H.1103

Construction of bulkheads/placement of riprap:

  
 

· at or above Normal High Water/Normal Water Line
· below Normal High Water/Normal Water Line

$100

$100

$200

$400

7H.1203

Docks, Piers, Boatlifts, Boathouses

$100

$200

7H.1303

Boat Ramps

$100

$200

7H.1403

Wooden or Riprap Groins

$100

$200

7H.1503

Maintenance excavation within existing canals, channels, basins and ditches in estuarine and public trust waters:

  
 

· excavation of up to 100 cubic yards
· excavation of 101-1000 cubic yards

$100
$100

$200
$400

7H.1603

Installation of Aerial and Subaqueous Lines

$100

$400

7H.1703

Installation of Sandbags

$250

$400

7H.1803

Beach Bulldozing

$100

$400

7H.1903

Temporary Structures

$100

$200

7H.2003

Reconfiguration of existing pier and mooring facilities

$100

$200

7H.2103

Marsh Enhancement Breakwaters

$100

$200

7H.2203

Freestanding Moorings

$100

$200

7H.2303

Replace Bridges and Culverts

$100

$400

7H.2403

Riprap for Wetland Protection

$50

$200

7H.2503

Emergency General Permit (fee waived by rule)

$0

$0

7H.2603

EEP Mitigation

$100

$400

7H.2703

Riprap Sills

$100

$200


Summary of 2006 CRC rule changes

15A NCAC 07H
The amendment will increase the application fee for some CAMA General Permits, up to a maximum of $400.

7B .0801, Public Hearing and Local Adoption Requirements
Amended to provide the public opportunity to provide written comments following local adoption of a land use plan.

07H .1102, 07H .1302, 07H .2102, CAMA General Permit approval procedures
Amended to establish a maximum duration for the construction phase of GP approved projects.

7B .0801 Public Hearing and Local Adoption Requirements
The CRC amended land use planning rule 7B.0801, Public Hearing and Local Adoption Requirements. The amendment is necessary to clarify when local governments must provide DCM with copies of their locally adopted land use plans and statements of adoption action.

7B .0901 CAMA Land Use Plan Amendments

The CRC amended land use planning rule 7B.0901, CAMA Land Use Plan Amendments, in order to clarify the procedures that local governments must comply with when amending their land use plans. Further, the rule amendment clarifies when amendments to an existing land use plan are extensive enough to trigger a complete update of the local land use plan, and stipulates that amendments must contain a local resolution of adoption that makes certain findings.

7H .0207 Public Trust Areas

The Coastal Resources Advisory Council Subcommittee on Public Trust Issues recommended that DCM use the normal high water mark or normal water level, instead of the mean high water mark or mean water level for the purpose of administering the CRC's rules on non-oceanfront shorelines. The CRC made this change in order to allow DCM staff to use a consistent implementation standard and to provide clarity the public.

7H .0304 AECs Within Ocean Hazard Areas

Amended to remove the unvegetated beach designation from portions of New Hanover, Pender, Onslow and Carteret counties. The designation was applied to these areas in 1996 following widespread vegetation loss after Hurricane Fran. The Division of Coastal Management has determined that there has been sufficient recovery in these areas that the unvegetated designation is no longer appropriate.

7H .0308 Specific Use Standards for Ocean Hazard Areas

7H.0308 sets out the specific use standards for the ocean hazard area of environmental concern (AEC), and references the Coastal and Flood Plain Construction Standards contained within the North Carolina Building Code. Due to revisions to the building code, the reference contained within 07H.0308 is no longer accurate. The rule was amended to remove the incorrect reference.

7H .0309 Use Standards for Ocean Hazard Areas: Exceptions

Amended to allow the use of concrete, asphalt or turfstone for residential structures as long as the properties do not directly abut the ocean and are located landward of a paved public street or highway currently in use. The amendment does not allow these paving materials to be used along private roadways, paved or unpaved, nor on oceanfront properties. The commission is seeking to minimize the use of hardened driveways in the ocean hazard area while resolving the conflict between commission rules and local ordinances.

This action is expected to rationalize the permitting process for property owners, local governments whose ordinances are in conflict with the commission’s rules, and DCM staff. Property owners to whom this amendment applies are expected to use hard paving materials if required by local ordinance.

7O .0105 Reserve Components

Amended to add the two newest Reserve sites to the rule: (1) Bird Island in Brunswick County, acquired in 2002, and (2) Emily and Richardson Preyer Buckridge in Tyrrell County, acquired in 1998.

7K .0208 Single Family Residences Exempted
Amended to remove outdated references to piers and rip rap.


Waterfront Access Committee studies loss of water access on the coast

Increasing growth on North Carolina’s coast has had an unfortunate side effect – the steady loss of fishing piers, small motels, family campgrounds and other means of public access to the water. In the past decade, the number of coastal fishing piers has dropped from 32 to 21. Five years ago there were 136 fish houses in the state, down to just 41 today.

Coastal access losses are of such concern that the General Assembly this year created a Waterfront Access Study Committee to find new ways to address the issue. The committee held its first meeting Sept. 26 in Raleigh, and recently met for a second time in Pine Knoll Shores. At its first meeting the committee reviewed its charge, determined what information it needs and the sources of such information, discussed trends and potential techniques and management tools that might be used in this effort. The second meeting focused on information received from committee members relating to access and development trends, other states’ efforts to address the issue, and potential solutions.

The committee has discussed several strategies to encourage retaining traditional land uses in the coast, including the establishment of a working waterfront/waterfront access trust fund for the purchase of waterfront land or easements and a present-use value tax break for owners of working waterfronts, similar to one that already exists for farmers.

The legislation calls for the committee to make an interim report to the Joint Legislative Commission on Seafood and Aquaculture, the Marine Fisheries Commission and the Coastal Resources Commission by Jan. 15.

Membership of the Waterfront Access Study Committee

(1)Director of the Sea Grant College Program of The University of North Carolina or the Director's designee (Committee Chair):Michael Voiland, Executive Director, North Carolina Sea Grant

(2)Senate Co-chair of the Joint Legislative Commission on Seafood and Aquaculture or the Co-chair's designee:Sen. Charlie Albertson, Senate Co-chair, Joint Legislative Commission on Seafood and Aquaculture

(3)House Co-chair of the Joint Legislative Commission on Seafood and Aquaculture or the Co-chair's designee:Rep. William Wainwright, House Co-chair, Joint Legislative Commission on Seafood and Aquaculture

(4)Chair of the Marine Fisheries Commission:Mac Currin, Chair, Marine Fisheries Commission

(5)Chair of the Coastal Resources Commission:Courtney Hackney, Chair, Coastal Resources Commission

(6)Chair of the Wildlife Resources Commission or the Chair's designee:Gordon Myers, Division Chief, Wildlife Resources Commission

(7)Director of the Division of Marine Fisheries or the Director's designee:Brian Cheuvront, Federal Aid Coordinator, Division of Marine Fisheries

(8)Director of the Division of Coastal Management:Charles Jones, Director, Division of Coastal Management

(9)President of the North Carolina Recreation and Parks Association or the President's designee:Neal Lewis, Director, New Hanover County Parks and Recreation

(10)A representative of a local government located in the Northeast Coastal Region:Allen Burrus, Co. Commissioner, Dare Co.

(11)A representative of a local government located in the Central Coastal Region:Art Schools, Mayor, Emerald Isle

(12)A representative of a local government located in the Southeast Coastal Region:John Vereen, Mayor, Oak Island

(13)An economist appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives:Douglas Wakeman, Meredith College

(14)A representative of the residential building industry who builds in a coastal region:Buddy Milliken, The Milliken Company, Brunswick County

(15)A realtor licensed under Chapter 93A of the General Statutes:Julia Wax, Emerald Isle Realty 

(16)An individual involved in economic development in a coastal region:Dave Inscoe, Carteret County Economic Development Council

(17)A representative of the marine trades industry:Robin Mann, Paul Mann Custom Boats, Mann’s Harbor

(18)A representative of the commercial fishing industry:Hardy Plyler, Commercial Fisherman, Ocracoke

(19)A representative of the recreational fishing industry:Ernie Foster, The Albatross Fleet, Hatteras

(20)A social scientist:Barbara Garrity-Blake, Cultural Anthropologist/Book Author, Gloucester

(21)A representative of the environmental community:Jim Stephenson, Program Analyst, N.C. Coastal Federation


Policy Q&A: Public beach and waterfront access

The public has traditionally had access to use and enjoy North Carolina’s ocean beaches and coastal waters for recreation. The state works to foster, improve, enhance and ensure this access through regulations and the CAMA Public Beach and Coastal Waterfront Access Grant Program.

What are the state requirements for public access on the oceanfront?
The state does not have specific requirements, but encourages local governments to plan for and develop areas that provide convenient access along the entire length of shoreline within their jurisdiction. Ideally, a local government would have a local/neighborhood site on every block and a larger, regional access site for every four miles of oceanfront. In addition, there would be one multi-regional access site on each barrier island or every 10 miles, whichever provides the most opportunities for the public to get to the beach. These sites usually have large parking lots and a variety of amenities, such as restrooms, showers and picnicking areas.

How much access does the state require communities undergoing beach nourishment to provide?
Unlike the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the state does not have specific requirements for the number of parking spaces or access facilities that communities undertaking nourishment must have. However, beach nourishment projects funded by the state and federal government must include provisions for adequate public access within the vicinity of the project.

What types of projects does the public access program fund?
Local governments may use access funds to construct low-cost public access facilities, including parking areas, restrooms, dune crossovers and piers. Projects range in size from small, local access areas for pedestrian access, to regional access sites with large parking lots, bathrooms and picnic shelters. Towns and counties also may use the grants to replace aging access facilities. In addition, local governments can use the funds to help acquire land for access sites or to revitalize urban waterfronts.

Can local governments that receive CAMA public access grants charge for parking at their access facilities?
Yes, if the fees are reasonable and the local government uses them solely for the operation and maintenance of the access facility.

Does the state program fund boating and fishing facilities?
The primary purpose of the public access program is to provide funds to acquire or develop land for pedestrian access and parking. Boating and fishing facilities may be funded if pedestrian access is the primary objective of the proposed project.

Where does the Division of Coastal Management get the money for the grants?
The money comes from the state’s Parks and Recreation Trust Fund, which is funded by land-transfer fees. Coastal Management receives about 5 percent of the fund each year to award grants to local governments. In recent years, the fund has provided Coastal Management with more than $1.5 million a year to support local access projects.


Policy Q&A: Sediment criteria for beach nourishment

At its November meeting, the Coastal Resources Commission adopted new sediment criteria rules for beach nourishment projects in North Carolina.

Why develop new sediment criteria rules?
Recently there have been several instances in which incompatible materials were placed on beaches during renourishment projects. These problems include discolored, muddy sand in Bogue Banks and rocky material pumped onto Oak Island’s beach. The proposed rules were designed to prevent similar problems in the future and, if in place, would have either prevented or reduced the amount of incompatible material found in the previous beach fill projects.  Further, the objective definition of “compatibility” makes it easier for DCM to evaluate potential projects as well as determine mitigation protocol for incompatible material.

What are the current rules?
The existing CRC rule states:“Sand used for beach nourishment shall be compatible with existing grain size and type; sand to be used for beach nourishment shall be taken only from those areas where the resulting environmental impacts will be minimal.”

What is the major change in the new rules?
The rules contain specific language stating that the sand must be similar in size and composition to what is currently on the beach to be nourished. Along with sediment compatibility language, the rules also set a benchmark - including pre-project sampling requirements - for nourishment projects.

What were the technical justifications for the guidelines in the new rules?

A white paper describing the data and methods used in rule development can be found online at www.nccoastalmanagement.net/sediment.htm.

Who had input into the rules?

Coastal Management staff worked closely with the CRC Science Panel, other DENR divisions, environmental groups and other stakeholder groups to develop these rules. In addition, the CRC held a public hearing on the rules at its September 2006 meeting. Overall, the rulemaking process has taken more than two years to complete.

Will it make beach renourishment projects more expensive?
DCM believes that any increases in cost will be nominal because the proposal incorporates rules, such as additional core samples, that are already standard in the industry. Producing a better renourishment project should also save money in the long run.

When will the new rules be effective?
The rules must be vetted by the North Carolina Rules Review Commission, and will then become effective Feb. 1, 2007.


DCM intern conducts marina study, finds many not in compliance

Thanks to UNC-Wilmington student Justin Lewis, nearly 30 marinas on the southern N.C coast were found to be out of compliance with Coastal Management rules regarding pumpout stations this summer.

During his summer internship with DCM’s Wilmington office, Justin assessed marinas throughoutBrunswick, New Hanover, Pender and Onslow counties that either received state money for pumpout stations or were required by permit to implement such a system. His research found that out of the total number of marinas in the Wilmington district, 53 percent are required by permit to have a pumpout facility. Out of that number (60 marinas) only 35 percent had installed a pumpout station as required.

Out of the 39 marinas Justin found to be out of compliance, 10 came into compliance after the matter was brought to the owners’ attention. Six marinas were either under construction or had closed, leaving 18 marinas that were issued a notice of violation by DCM. Seventeen of the marinas have since signed restoration plan agreements and have purchased and installed, or will install, pumpout facilities.

“The outcome of this project … is not only to require the marinas to cooperate with DCM’s rules to develop and maintain an effective pumpout system, but will significantly contribute to the esthetics and health of coastal waters,” Lewis said.

Pumpout facilities are used to properly dispose of marine sewage, so that the sewage is not dumped into local waters. Coastal Management’s Marine Sewage Pumpout and Dump Station Grant Program provides financial assistance to marinas and other boat-docking facilities for the installation and renovation of pumpout and dump stations in North Carolina.


Stormwater Management & Sustainable Development Workshop

Coastal Reserves staff conducted a workshop on Stormwater Management and Sustainable Development in Morehead City on Nov. 1. This workshop was a result of information gathered through a needs assessment of Carteret County town planning board members.

Tom Reeder from the Division of Water Quality, Ed Mitchell from the River Dunes development in Pamlico County, along with Tere Barrett and Maureen Will with the Division of Coastal Management, all assisted with the workshop. Thirty-three people attended the workshop, including planning board members from Pine Knoll Shores, Peletier, Beaufort and Atlantic Beach; the town of Beaufort's mayor; engineers from Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point; and area environmental nonprofit groups. Post-workshop evaluations revealed that 96 percent of attendees intend to apply the information they learned at the workshop in their work. Notable comments from the evaluations include:

"The clock is ticking - we're running out of time to stop the harmful impact on our environment from runaway development."

We need a workshop for Carteret County governments to discuss potential ordinances for the area. This might encourage some uniformity in stormwater management, and implementation of the Universal Stormwater Management Program."


Ten easy ways to reduce stormwater pollution at home

One of the biggest threats to water quality along the coast and elsewhere is runoff pollution. It occurs when rainwater, snowmelt or irrigation water doesn’t soak into the ground, but instead runs off the land or developed surfaces, carrying pollutants into creeks, streams, rivers and sounds.

In recent years, the coastal region has been subject to several problems related to pollution from stormwater runoff, also known as nonpoint source pollution. Algal blooms, fish kills, sediment plumes and shellfish closures have been caused by upland pollutants finding their way into the state’s coastal waters.

Healthy shorelines are a great investment for clean water. A well-vegetated shoreline with shrubs and deep-rooted plants filters chemicals and sediments that pollute our waters and harm fish and wildlife. It keeps our shorelands intact by absorbing energy from wave action and preventing erosion.

A healthy shoreline also provides essential habitat and travel corridors for fish and wildlife, including species at risk. It also provides a wonderful space for our relaxation and enjoyment! Healthy natural shorelines are essential to industries including fisheries, tourism and recreation

1. Dispose of leaves, grass clippings and other yard waste properly

Grass clippings, leaves and other yard wastes left on sidewalks, driveways or streets will wash away with the next storm. Although leaves and other plant debris accumulate naturally in streams and lakes, excess amounts of plant matter, especially in areas with many homes, can lead to water that is unattractive or green with algae, potential fish kills, and make areas unsuitable for recreation because of debris or algae blooms.

Instead, leave grass clippings on the lawn to act as natural fertilizer, compost leaves and grass clippings for use as garden mulch, or bag yard waste for collection.

2. Always clean up after your pets

Pet wastes contain viruses, bacteria and parasites that can threaten human health and cause shellfish bed closures and algae blooms. The risk of stormwater contamination increases if pet wastes are allowed to accumulate in animal pens or are left on sidewalks, streets and driveways.

To keep pet waste from polluting our water systems, clean up after your pets using a scooper or plastic grocery bag, or consider installing a pet waste digester on your property.

3. Dispose of auto fluids properly; don’t wash your car on the driveway or street.

Oil stains on your driveway and spills of antifreeze, brake fluid and other fluids can wash into storm drains. Routine maintenance can help identify potential leaks. If you change your own oil, be careful to avoid spills and collect waste oil for recycling. NEVER dump used oil, antifreeze or gasoline down a storm drain, in a ditch or on the ground. These wastes will end up in a nearby lake or stream, where they may pollute your drinking water.

Washing your car in the driveway creates runoff without the help of a rainstorm—your hose provides the water. The dirty, soapy runoff drains directly into storm sewers, picking up oil and other pollutants as it goes. If possible, try washing your car on the lawn. Better yet, take it to a commercial car wash.

4. Install a rain garden, and plant trees and shrubbery to reduce erosion.

A rain garden is a shallow depression in your yard that is planted with native plants and is positioned in the yard to receive runoff from your roof, sidewalks, driveway and lawns allowing water to slowly soak into the ground.

A rain garden is also a water conservation system, gathering then holding and using rainwater that falls on your property and saving precious water resources.

Leave an unmowed buffer strip of thick vegetation along streams or shorelines.

5. Reduce the use of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides.

Fertilizers contain nitrogen and phosphorus, which can cause algae growth. Pesticides and herbicides are poisonous, and pose a threat not only to humans, but to wildlife, plans and beneficial insects.

Instead of fertilizing your lawn, consider mulching your grass clippings for a natural fertilizer. If you do fertilize, keep fertilizer of sidewalks and driveways.

Consider weeding by hand rather than using herbicides, and landscape with disease and pest-resistant plants.

Never apply chemicals to your lawn just before it rains.

6. Properly store and dispose of household chemicals.

Keeping hazardous substances such as cleaners, paint and pool chemicals in waterproof containers and store them up high and out of the potential path of runoff or floodwaters. Avoid storage problems by buying only as a much of a product as you need for a particular task.

Use environmentally friendly products and cleaners, or alternatives like baking soda and vinegar.

Don’t pour these chemicals down storm or household drains. Dispose of them at designated areas.

7. Eliminate or reduce paved surfaces.

Concrete and asphalt roads, driveways and walkways are impervious; they prevent rainwater from soaking into the ground.

When you have the choice, consider alternative materials such as gravel or wood chips for walkways. Avoid paving areas like patios.

If you must pour concrete, keep the paved area as small and narrow as possible.

8. Direct rainspouts away from paved surfaces and onto grassy areas.

The roof on your house sheds water during rainfall events. If downspouts from roof gutters empty onto grassy or natural areas, the water will have a chance to soak into the ground. Aim downspouts away from foundations and paved surfaces.

For roofs without gutters, plant grass, spread mulch or use gravel under the drip line to prevent soil erosion and increase infiltration of water into the ground. Consider using cisterns or rain barrels to catch rain for watering your lawn and garden in dry weather.

9. Maintain your septic system.

Malfunctioning septic systems and improper waste disposal degrade water quality, and can lead to beach closures for swimming and shellfish harvesting.

Inspect and pump out your system every three to five years. Don’t park on the drainfield or add chemicals to the tank.

Reduce the amount of solids entering the system from garbage disposals by composting household waste.

Never pour oil and grease down household drains. Instead, put it in a container, allow it to harden, then seal the container and place it in the trash.

10. Reduce sediment buildup.

Sediment from development or unvegetated areas can impact water quality and aquatic habitats, and can also lead to flooding.

Consider reseeding bare lawn areas, and plant groundcover, shrubs and trees to hold soil in place, reduce erosion and filter pollutants from runoff.

Sweep sediment from driveways, sidewalks and patios. Do not use a hose to wash it away.


Coastal Reserve sites get a Big Sweep

The N.C. Coastal Reserves participated in this year’s Big Sweep event with a cleanup of five Reserve sites:

Rachel Carson Reserve in Beaufort
Two clean-ups were conducted on the Rachel Carson Reserve in conjunction with Big Sweep: Oct. 23 with students from the Duke University Marine Lab, and Oct. 30 with the N.C. Outer Banks Chapter of the Mother/Daughter National Charity League. Thirty bags of trash were collected from the two clean-ups from the island Town Marsh.

Zeke’s Island Reserve in New Hanover County
Thanks to the North Carolina Aquarium at Fort Fisher, a clean-up was coordinated for Zeke’s Island Reserve on Oct. 6.  Even though the basin was flooded when they arrived, the eight volunteers managed to pick up 16 bags of trash

Masonboro Island Reserve in Wilmington
The North Carolina Coastal Land Trust did a wonderful job on Oct. 21, with 22 volunteers collecting 55 bags of trash. Seven of those bags weighed approximately 200 pounds.

Buxton Woods Reserve in Dare County
The Oct. 6 clean-up at Buxton Woods Reserve was cut short due to bad weather, but the four volunteers did manage to collect several bags of trash.

Currituck Banks Reserve in Corolla
With the help of the Carolina Estuarine Reserve Foundation, a clean-up around the Currituck Banks boardwalk took place on Oct. 6. This effort resulted in trash removal, bike rack repair, removal of a torn-down wall and trimming of overgrowth on the boardwalk. 


Sea turtle monitoring resumes on Masonboro Island

This summer, sea turtle monitoring was reinstated at the Masonboro Island National Estuarine Research Reserve after a five-year hiatus. The 8.4 mile long barrier island is bordered by fully developed islands to the north and south and has historically served as one of the most important sea turtle nesting areas in the greater Wilmington area. The island was last monitored in 2001 when 26 loggerhead nests and 35 “false crawls” were recorded. This year, 25 nests – three of which were endangered green sea turtles – were found on the northern half of the island. Since 2001 Masonboro Island has been the only beach in North Carolina not monitored.  

The sea turtle monitoring project on Masonboro Island is a collaborative effort with Dr. Amanda Southwood with UNC-Wilmington, and Emily Abernathy, a recent UNC-Wilmington graduate. A group of 15 volunteers, with sea turtle monitoring experience, also assisted with the project.

Sea turtle monitors are also working with N.C. Audubon to cross-train for bird monitoring as part of the project. Audubon has conducted surveys of colonial shorebird nesting sites, and has provided the materials and personnel to stake those sites. The collaborative effort stands to benefit both Audubon’s efforts and the goals of the Reserve.


News briefs

State of the Beach report
The nonprofit Surfrider Foundation has once again given North Carolina high marks in its 2006 State of the Beach report. In particular, the report praises Coastal Management’s online information, especially the Web-based guide to public beach and waterfront access areas.

Holman appointed visiting scholar at Duke University
Bill Holman, executive director of the Clean Water Management Trust Fund and former secretary of the N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, has been appointed a visiting scholar at the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University, effective Dec. 28, 2006.

As visiting scholar, Holman will work with the institute staff to identify new avenues for applying the institute’s policy expertise, and the broad academic resources of the Nicholas School of the  Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University and other universities statewide, to North Carolina environmental issues.


Staff news

Jennifer Rouse, GIS analyst in the Raleigh office, has left DCM for a position with a private GIS company that works with local governments.

Ann Wunderly is joining DCM as the Coastal Reserves Northern Sites Manager. Ann will be responsible for managing the Currituck Banks component of the N.C. National Estuarine Research Reserve, Kitty Hawk Woods Coastal Reserve, and Buxton Woods Coastal Reserve.

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